Simulation of operating loads of ablative composite shields used in flight data recorders
The objects of the mathematical simulation were two covers of the same shape, but different geometrical dimensions. The covers were made of: aramid fabric, alternating and uniformly distributed in the composite - in a polymer matrix of epoxy resin, modified with 15% addition of MMT. For each of the two guards, four variants of the composite material were considered in correlation with the metal casing, as well as three load cases, in accordance with the normative documents. A numerical analysis of dynamic tests was performed to determine the durability of the recorder. As a result of the conducted analyzes, stress values were obtained in all load cases and for all kinds of placement of the composite in correlation with the metal reinforcement casing. The displacements of the entire model and stress σx were analyzed that can cause delamination and stress τyz capable of cutting inter-cutting, as well as a detailed distribution of stresses reduced in subsequent layers of the cover material. The distribution of kinetic and potential energy during piercing of the composite thermo-protective casing was determined by numerical simulation and the housing of recorder made of an epoxy ablation composite, with a metal casing located inside the casing.
ADAC warnt vor der Blackbox fürs Auto. (2015). http://www.welt.de/motor/article108814877/ADAC-warnt-vor-der-Blackbox-fuers-Auto.html/ Accessed 19 March 2015.
Alagar, M., Ashok K. A., Mahesh, K. P.O., & Dinakaran, K. (2000). Studies on thermal and morphological characteristics of E-glass/Kevlar 49 reinforced siliconized epoxy composites. European Polymer Journal,
, 2449-2454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0014-3057(00)00038-0
Bahramian, A. R. (2013). Effect of external heat flux on the thermal diffusivity and ablation performance of carbon fiber reinforced novolac resin composite. Iranian Polymer Journal, 22, 579-589. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13726-013-0157-z
Bakar, M., Kucharczyk, W., & Stawarz, S. (2016). Investigation of thermal and ablative properties of modified epoxy resins. Polymers & Polymer Composites, 24(8), 617-623.
Bieniaś, J., & Jakubczak, P. (2017). Impact damage growth in carbon fibre aluminium laminates. Composite Structures, 172, 147-154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2017.03.075
Camino, G., Tartaglione, G., Frache, A., Manferti, C., & Costa, G. (2005). Thermal and combustion behaviour
of layered silicate-epoxy nanocomposites. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 90, 354-362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2005.02.022
EUROCAE. (2013). Minimum Operational Performance Specification For Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems, Revision A.
Fino, P., Lombardi, M., Antonini, A., Malucelli, G., & Montanaro, L. (2012). Exploring composites based on PPO blend as ablative thermal protection systems – Part II: The role of equiaxial fillers. Composite Structures,
, 1060-1066. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2011.10.020
GM Automatic Crash Response System (ACR). (2016). http://cms.cerritos.edu/auto/basic-its/ost.htm/ Accessed
Haack, A. (2004). Latest achievements and perspectives in tunnel safety. Author’s presentation 30nd ITA – World Tunnel Congress, Singapore, 22-27 May 2004.
IEEE 1616-2004 - IEEE Standard for Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). (2004). IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. http://standards.ieee.org/ Accessed 24 February 2012.
Krzyżak, A., Kucharczyk, W., Gąska, J., & Szczepaniak, R. (2018). Ablative test of composites with epoxy resin and expanded perlite. Composite Structures, 202, 978-987. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2018.05.018
Kucharczyk, W. (2010). Some ablative properties of epoxy composites used for thermo-protection (in Polish). Przemysł Chemiczny, 89(12), 1673-1676.
Kucharczyk, W., Dusiński, D., Żurowski, W., & Gumiński, R. (2018). Effect of composition on ablative properties of epoxy composites modified with expanded perlite. Composite Structures, 183, 654-662. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2017.08.047
Kucharczyk, W., Przybyłek, P., & Opara, T. A. (2013). Investigation of the thermal protection ablative properties
of thermosetting composites with powder fillers: the corundum Al2O3 and the carbon powder C. Polish Journal
of Chemical Technology, 15(4), 49-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/pjct-2013-0067
Lombardi, M., Fino, P., Malucelli, G., & Montanaro, L. (2012). Exploring composites based on PPO blend as ablative thermal protection systems – Part I: The role of layered fillers. Composite Structures, 94, 1067-1074. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2011.10.019
Ministere des Transports, Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile. (2005). Flight Data Recorder Read-Out, Technical and Regulatory Aspects.
https://www.bea.aero/uploads/tx_scalaetudessecurite/use.of.fdr_01.pdf/ Accessed 19 July 2020.
Minkook, K., Jaeheon, C., & Dai, G. L. (2016). Development of the fire-retardant sandwich structure using an aramid/glass hybrid composite and a phenolic foam-filled honeycomb. Composite Structures, 158, 227-234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2016.09.029
NIST NCSTAR 1. (2005). Final report on the Collapse of the World Trade Center. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Ono, K., & Otsuka, T. (2006). Fire design requirement for various tunnel. Authors’ presentation of 32nd ITA – World Tunnel Congress, Seoul, 25 April 2006.
Polak, Z., & Rypulak, A. (2002). Avionics instruments and on-board systems (in Polish). Dęblin: Polish Air Force Academy.
Przybyłek, P. (2018). Analysis of possibilities to improve thermal resistance assessment of the universal flight data recorder by application of shield, made with polymer ablative composites (in Polish). Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Radom: Kazimierz Pulaski University of Technology and Humanities in Radom.
Przybyłek, P., & Opara, T. A. (2010). Flight data recorders, protective case. Journal of Aeronautica Integra, 8(2), 43-50.
Pulci, G., Tirillň, J., Marra, F., Fossati, F., Bartuli, C., & Valente, T. (2010). Carbon–phenolic ablative materials for re-entry space vehicles: Manufacturing and properties. Composites: Part A, 41, 1483-1490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2010.06.010
Rallini, M., Puri, I., Torre, L., & Natali, N. (2018). Boron based fillers as char enhancers of EPDM based heat shielding materials for SRMs: A comparative analysis. Composite Structures, 198, 73-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2018.03.102
Ryabov, A., Romanov, V., Kukanov, S., & Roschihmarow, D. (2003). Numerical simulation of flight data recorder’s protective case penetration resistance test. 4tf European L-S DYNA Users Conference, Ulm.
Shi, S., Wang, Y., Yan, L., Sun, P., Li, M., & Tang, S. (2020). Coupled ablation and thermal behavior of an all-composite structurally integrated thermal protection system: Fabrication and modeling. Composite Structures,
Stawarz, S., Witek, N., Kucharczyk, W., Bakar, M., & Stawarz, M. (2019). Thermo-protective properties of polymer composites with nano-titanium dioxide. International Journal of Mechanics and Materials in Design, 15(3), 585-599. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10999-018-9432-7
U.S. Department Of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration – NHTSA. (2010). Event Data Recorders. 49 CFR Part 563, Docket No. NHTSA-2004-18029. http://www.nhtsa.gov/Laws+&+Regulations/Other+Equipment/ Accessed 15 February 2010.
U.S. Department Of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration – NHTSA. (2015). Event Data Recorder (EDR) Research Applications of Articles, Products and Research. http://www.nhtsa.gov/EDR/ Accessed 23 October 2016.
Wilkinson, T. (2002). The World Trade Center and 9/11: The discussion of some engineering design issues. National Conference “Safe Buildings for This Century”. Australian Institute of Building Surveyors, Sydney.
Yuan, W., Wang, J., Song, H., Ma, T., Wu, W., Li, J., & Huang, C.H. (2018). High-power laser resistance
of filled sandwich panel with truss core: An experimental study. Composite Structures, 193, 53-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2018.03.031
Zhou, L. Ch., Sun, X. H., Chen, M. W., Zhu, Y. B., & Wu, H. A. (2019). Multiscale modeling and theoretical prediction for the thermal conductivity of porous plain-woven carbonized silica/phenolic composites. Composite Structures, 215, 278-288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2019.02.053.
[dataset] (2011). 14 CFR § 121.344 - Digital flight data recorders for transport category airplanes, 1 January. https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/CFR-2011-title14-vol3/CFR-2011-title14-vol3-sec121-344/summary/ Accessed 19 July 2020.